Ph: +61 428 066 058
Dr Elspeth “Ebbe” Hayes completed her PhD at the University of Wollongong, Australia, in 2015. Her PhD research focused on the function of Aboriginal grinding tools through a detailed functional analysis of the usewear and residue traces on tools from key archaeological sites in Australia (Madjedbebe and Lake Mungo). During her PhD, Ebbe visited Lakehead University in Canada to study chemical methods of residue analysis, including the newest applications of spectroscopy, gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), biochemical staining and others. As part of a European internship program, Ebbe also received a travel scholarship to visit and work in the TraceoLab at the University of Liège in Belgium. The TraceoLab is known globally as one of the largest research centres for functional studies, housing 11 optical light microscopes, a scanning electron microscope and over 3000 experimental tools.
Following the completion of her PhD, Ebbe worked as a Research Fellow in the Centre for Archaeological Science at the University of Wollongong where she was involved in several collaborative projects to study tool function at early human sites in eastern Asia and Australia, including Denisova Cave (Siberia), Liang Bua (Indonesia) and Madjedbebe (northern Australia). Ebbe has also worked as a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Liège in Belgium, where she investigated the evolution of stone tool hafting in the Palaeolithic through residue analysis using the scanning electron microscope as part of the EVO-HAFT Project.
Ebbe is currently an Honorary Fellow at the University of Wollongong and an Associate Member of The Australian Association of Consulting Archaeologists Inc. (AACAI).
Doctor of Philosophy (with commendation) 2015
Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth and Environmental Science,
Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong
Bachelor of Science (Hons 1) (Geoscience) 2010
School of Earth and Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health
University of Wollongong
Fullagar, R., Hayes, E.H., Chen, X., Ma, X., Liu, L. A functional study of denticulate sickles and knives, ground stone tools from the early Neolithic Peiligang culture, China (2021) Archaeological Research in Asia 26(2021): 100265.
Hayes, E.H., Field, J.H., Coster, A.C.F., Fullagar, R., Matheson, C., Florin, S.A., Nango, M., Djandjomerr, D., Marwick, B., Wallis, L.A., Smith, M.A. (2021) Holocene grinding stones at Madjedbebe reveal the processing of starchy plant taxa and animal tissue. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 35(2021): 102754.
Hayes, E.H., C. Spry, R. Fullagar, P. Schell, M. Goulding (2020) Tool-use experiments to determine the function of an incised ground stone artefact with potential symbolic significance. Journal of Lithic Studies 7(3): 1–17.
Bordes, L., Hayes, E.H., Fullagar, R. and Deméré, T., (2020) Raman and optical microscopy of bone micro-residues on cobbles from the Cerutti mastodon site. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 34(2020): 102656.
Field, J.H., Summerhayes, G.R., Luu, S., Coster, A.C.F., Ford, A., Mandui, H., Fullagar, R., Hayes, E.H., Leavesley, M., Lovave, M., Kealhofer, L. (2020) Functional studies of flaked and ground stone artefacts reveal starchy tree nut and root exploitation in mid-Holocene highland New Guinea. The Holocene 30(9): 1360–1374.
Spry, C., Hayes, E.H., Allen, K., Long, A., Paton, L., Hua, Q., Armstrong, B.J., Fullagar, R., Webb, J., Penzo-Kajewski, P., Bordes, L. (2020). Wala-gaay Guwingal: A twentieth century Aboriginal culturally modified tree with an embedded stone tool. Australian Archaeology 86(1): 3–20.
Shaw, B., Field, J.H., Summerhayes, G.R., Coxe, S., Coster, A.C., Ford, A., Haro, J., Arifeae, H., Hull, E., Jacobsen, G., Fullagar, R., Hayes, E.H. (2020) Emergence of a Neolithic in highland New Guinea by 5000 to 4000 years ago. Science Advances 6(13): 4573–4583.
Hayes, E.H., R. Fullagar, B. Marwick (2020) Australian usewear/residue studies, artefact design and multi-purpose tools. In: Gibaja, J., I. Clemente, N. Mazzucco and J. Marreiros. Hunter-Gatherers tool kit: a functional perspective. pp. 260–289. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars.
Spry, C., Armstrong, B.J., Hayes, E.H., Webb, J.A., Allen, K., Paton, L., Hua, Q., Fullagar, R. (2020) How a stone wedged in a gum tree shows the resilience of Aboriginal culture in Australia. The Conversation (Published online 20/06/2020).
Rots, V., Hayes, E.H., Akerman, K., Green, P., Clarkson, C., Lepers, C., Bordes, L., McAdams, C., Foley, E., Fullagar, R. (2020) Hafted Tool-use Experiments with Australian Aboriginal Plant Adhesives: Triodia Spinifex, Xanthorrhoea Grass Tree and Lechenaultia divaricata Mindrie. EXARC Journal, 1.
Hayes, E.H. and V. Rots (2019) Documenting scarce and fragmented residues on stone tools: an experimental approach using optical microscopy and SEM-EDS. Journal of Archaeological and Anthropological Science 11(7): 3065–3099.
Hayes, E.H., D. Cnuts, V. Rots (2019) Integrating SEM-EDS in a sequential residue analysis protocol: benefits and challenges. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 23: 116–126.
Spry, C., Hayes, E.H., Fullagar, R., Schell, P., Goulding, M. (2019) An unusual, incised ground stone artefact from southwestern Victoria, Australia: its function and potential symbolic significance. Australian Archaeology 85(1): 95–101.
Pardoe, C., Fullagar, R., Hayes, E.H. (2019) Quandong stones: A specialised Australian nut-cracking tool. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0222680.
Luong, S., Tocheri, M.W., Hayes, E.H., Sutikna, T., Fullagar, R., Saptomo, E.W. and Roberts, R.G. (2019). Combined organic biomarker and use-wear analyses of stone artefacts from Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia. Scientific Reports 9(1): 1–17.
Hayes, E.H., R., Fullagar, K. Mulvaney, K. Connell (2018) Food or fibercraft? Grinding stones and Triodia grass (spinifex). Quaternary International 468: 271–283.
Hayes, E.H., Fullagar, R., Pardoe, C. (2018) Sandstone grinding/pounding tools: Use-trace reference libraries and Australian archaeological applications. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 20: 97–114.
Bordes, L., Fullagar, R. Prinsloo, L., Hayes, E.H., Kozlikin, M.B., Shunkov, M.V., Derevianko, A.P., Roberts, R.G. (2018) Corrigendum to “Raman spectroscopy of lipid micro-residues on Middle Palaeolithic stone tools from Denisova Cave, Siberia” [J. Archaeol. Sci. 95 July 2018 52–63]. Journal of Archaeological Science 100: 201.
Bordes, L., Fullagar, R., Prinsloo, L.C., Hayes, E.H., Kozlikin, M., Shunkov, M., Derevianko, A., Roberts, R.G. (2018) Raman spectroscopy of lipid micro-residues on Middle Palaeolithic stone tools from Denisova Cave, Siberia. Journal of Archaeological Science 95: 52–63.
Hayes, E.H., Cnuts, D., Lepers, C., Rots, V. (2017) Learning from blind tests: determining the function of experimental grinding stones through use-wear and residue analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports 11: 245–260.
Hayes, E.H., Fullagar, R., Spry, C., Schell, P., Goulding, M. (2017) An unusual ground stone artefact from Bannockburn, near Geelong in southwestern Victoria. In C. Spry, E. Foley, D. Frankel, S. Lawrence, I. Berelov and S. Canning (eds), Excavations, Surveys and Heritage Management in Victoria (Volume 6), p. 91. Melbourne: La Trobe University.
Marwick, B., Hayes, E.H., Clarkson, C., Fullagar, R. (2017) Movement of lithics by trampling: an experiment in Madjedbebe sediments. Journal of Archaeological Science 79: 73–85.
Rots, V., Hayes, E.H., Cnuts, D., Lepers, C., Fullagar, R. (2017) Correction: Making Sense of Residues on Flaked Stone Artefacts: Learning from Blind Tests. PloS ONE 12(5): p.e0178311.
Luong, S., Hayes, E.H., Flannery, E., Sutikna, T., Tocheri, M.W., Wahyu, E., Jatmiko, Roberts, R.G. (2017) Development and application of a comprehensive analytical workflow for the quantification of non-volatile low molecular weight lipids on archaeological stone tools. Analytical Methods 9: 4349–4362.
Clarkson, C., Jacobs, Z., Marwick, B., Fullagar, R., Wallis, L., Smith, M., Roberts, R.G., Arnold, L., Hayes, E.H., Lowe, K., Carah, X., Florin, A., McNeil, J., Huntley, J., Brand, H., Fairbairn, A., Connell, K., Norman, K., Shulmeister, J., Pardoe, C. (2017) Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago. Nature 547: 306–310.
Bordes, L., Prinsloo, L.C., Fullagar,, R., Sutikna, T., Hayes, E.H., Jatmiko, Wahyu Saptomo, E., Tocheri, M.W., Roberts, R.G. (2017) Viability of Raman microscopy to identify micro-residues related to tool-use and modern contaminants on prehistoric stone artefacts. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 48: 1212–1221.
Fullagar, R., Stephenson, B., Hayes, E.H. (2017) Grinding grounds: function and distribution of grinding stones from an open site in the Pilbara, Western Australia. Quaternary International 427: 175–183.
Rots, V., Hayes, E.H., Cnuts, D., Lepers, C., Fullagar, R. (2016) Making sense of residues on flaked stone artefacts: learning from blind tests. Plos ONE 11(3): p.e0150437.
Fullagar, R., Hayes, E.H., Stephenson, B., Field, J., Matheson, C., Stern, N., Fitzsimmons, K. (2015a) Evidence for Pleistocene seed grinding at Lake Mungo, south-eastern Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 50: 3–19.
Fullagar, R., Hayes, E.H., Stephenson, B., Field, J., Matheson, C., Stern, N., Fitzsimmons, K. (2015b) The scale of seed grinding at Lake Mungo. Archaeology in Oceania 50: 177–179.
Smith, M., Hayes, E.H., Stephenson, B. (2015) Mapping a millstone: the dynamics of use-wear and residues on a Central Australian seed-grinding implement. Australian Archaeology: 80: 70–79.
Clarkson, C., Smith, M., Marwick, B., Fullagar, R., Wallis, L., Faulkner, P., Manne, T., Hayes, E.H., Roberts, R.G., Jacobs, Z., Carah, X., Lowe, K.M., Matthews, J., Florin, A. (2015) The archaeology, chronology and stratigraphy of Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II): A site in northern Australia with early occupation. Journal of Human Evolution 83: 46–64.
Hayes, E.H., Fullagar, R., Clarkson, C., O’Connor, S. (2014) Usewear on the platform: ‘use-flakes’ and ‘retouch-flakes’ from northern Australia and Timor. In S. Nunziante Cesaro and C. Lemori (eds), An Integration of Use-Wear and Residue Analysis for the Identification of the Function of Archaeological Stone Tools: Proceedings of the International Workshop Rome, March 5th–7th, 2012, pp.77–90. British Archaeological Reports: 2649. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Jacobs, Z., Hayes, E.H., Roberts, R.G., Galbraith, R.F., Henshilwood, C.F. (2013) An improved OSL chronology for the Still Bay layers at Blombos Cave, South Africa: further tests of single-grain dating procedures and a re-evaluation of the timing of the Still Bay industry across southern Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(1): 579–594.
Hayes, E.H. (2015). What was ground? A functional analysis of grinding stones from Madjedbebe and Lake Mungo, Australia. PhD thesis, University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
Hayes, E.H. (2010) Extending the chronology for Blombos Cave, South Africa: Further evidence for the origins of modern human behaviour. Honours thesis, University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
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